Domestic Violence against Pregnant Women in Uttar Pradesh, India: A Trace of Factors and Pregnancy Complications –CME Conference in Bangalore
The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence against pregnant women and to examine its association with pregnancy complications. This study is based on a longitudinal survey conducted from urban and rural areas of Lucknow and Sitapur districts in Uttar Pradesh. Participants of the study included 504 pregnant women which are calculated using the parameters like- total number of pregnancies (N) obtained in each district through Annual Health Survey (2014) and z values for getting the estimates representative at 95% confidence interval and a margin of 2% additional sample to adjust for the design effect. Data was collected between June, 2016 to July, 2016 (First Wave) and December, 2016 to January, 2017 (Second Wave) through using structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI of the association of different socioeconomic and demographic factors and prevalence of domestic violence against the pregnant women. Further, multivariate binary logistic regression was done to examine the effect of the type of domestic violence on pregnancy complications. The results show that 10% of women experienced any type of domestic violence during pregnancy, with reports of verbal violence more common than physical violence and sexual violence. Further, the results show that 37.5% of pregnant women who faced violence during pregnancy experienced pregnancy complications, while only 28.9% of pregnant women who did not face violence during pregnancy experienced pregnancy complications. The results show that the likelihood of having pregnancy complications was higher among women who experienced physical violence during pregnancy. Domestic violence during pregnancy, particularly the physical violence is regarded as an important risk marker for the development of pregnancy complications. This finding justifies the need to incorporate violence during pregnancy as an indicator in maternal health screening programmes and to generate awareness among health professionals and community people to identify and address domestic violence during pregnancy.